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Artillery
 

 History

 Before reaching the enviable stage of self-propelled guns, automated fire control system, target acquisition radars, meteorological radars, variety of munitions including nuclear warheads, guided missiles, Artillery has come a long way. There was a time when the regiment was organized in a garrison and field artillery, for laying sieges and defending fortresses. Later came a new organization based on the degree and means of mobility i.e the garrison, horse and field artillery.

The first being fixed and last two being mounted. Still later, followed a newer organization based on the caliber of guns and size of shells i.e. light, medium, heavy and super heavy. Pack or mountain, horse and field artillery falling in the category of light artillery and huge caliber coastal guns falling under the super heavy category. Today, we have bifurcated into mountain, field, medium, heavy and mortars. This division is based on a combination of factors like mobility, caliber, range, trajectory and size of shells etc.

The roots of Royal Artillery and Pakistan Artillery link to the evaluation of Royal Artillery to Royal Indian Artillery and then to Royal Pakistan Artillery, until it became the Regiment of Artillery as today. In the British India, prior to 1861, requirement of artillery was met by the presidency artillery. The year 1861 saw conversion of presidency artillery into Royal Artillery which kept on serving the British Indian Army till 1 November 1940, when the foundation of the Indian Artillery was laid. Later, after the end of World War II in August 1945, the Indian Artillery was re-designated as the Royal Indian Artillery. After the independence in 1947, the Pakistani complement of the Royal Indian Artillery was converted into Royal Pakistan Artillery. Finally, on assumption of national constitution on 23 March 1956, It was decided to re-designate it as the Regiment of Artillery.

Pakistan Artillery inherited only eight gun units, one survey battery, an air observation post flight and two formation headquarters. In addition to this, the Frontier Corps had six 3.7 inch howitzers and fifteen 25 pounder guns. The units inherited were built around a steel frame of old mountain gunners. These men had tempered through years of service in frontier operations and honed in the battlefields of Africa, Middle East, Italy and Burma. Their reaction to the battle was unexcited, instinctive and professional. And it was with these men that we raised regiments after regiments and built a formidable arsenal for the Nation in the form of Pakistan Artillery.top

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 Battle Performance of Artillery


Indo Pak War of 1948
In 1948 Kashmir War, when the Regiment of Artillery was still nascent, it got committed against numerically superior forces.

Pakistan Artillery operated in Kashmir under several handicaps, except for the spirit and skill of our officers and men. Guns were employed with great care and full calculation of the risks involved. In spite of Indian monopoly of air, wherever our guns opened fire, the Indians were surprised and silenced receiving commensurate punishment. The feats like manhandling and taking the guns to heights of over 9000 feet on the peaks of Chunj, Kai and other features and engaging Indian forces, will remain a glowing chapter in the history of Pakistan Artillery. These officers and men were trained before the dawn of independence but they were Pakistanis, and so was their spirit and inspiration. For the first time since the disintegration of Mughal Empire, the people of this part of the land could feel making their own history.
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Indo Pak War of 1965

By 1965 the Regiment of Artillery was eighteen years old but was well past its adolescence. The events of 1947-48 had lifted us out of our infancy into an awareness of responsibility. Indo Pak War of 1965 was the first real test of our forces. Artillery came out with flying colours and earned well deserved appreciation both from friends and foes. In all the sectors starting from Kashmir in the North to Rann of Kutch in the South, Artillery played predominant and decisive role. Timely and accurate fires and capability of Artillery units to deploy and redeploy in adverse battle conditions had devastating effect on the Indian forces. The overall war performance of Artillery can be easily gauged through the tributes paid to the gunners.

“By all accounts the part played by Artillery can only be termed as MAGNIFICENT. The results achieved are MIRACULOUS. They deserve congratulation and gratitude of us all”

                                 Field Marshal MOHAMMAD AYUB KHAN

“I am proud of the part played by our Artillery in the crucial battle in Sialkot. The superb performance of our Artillery is admitted even by the enemy. It shook her nerves”

                                                   General MOHAMMAD MUSA

“Artillery has given a good account of itself in the war and has without any doubt emerged as the best fighting arm of the Pakistan Army”

                      Lieutenant General AKHTAR HUSSAIN MALIK


“The enemy used his Artillery boldly and effectively. In the early stage, specially in XI Corps sector, it produced devastating results. The enemy used his Mortars aggressively and in a mobile role. Mortars were moved out at night well forward of his position onto our flanks from where they could engage targets in depth, some times even our gun positions” 

                                                             Comments by Indians

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Indo Pak War of 1971
 

The obvious problems resulting from this vast expansion were thinning out and dispersion of experience, lack of balance between field, medium and heavy units and problems emanating from induction of Eastern equipment. Besides, there were training handicaps due to the financial limitations imposed by large raisings in the Army. Keeping these serious constraints in view, the performance of Artillery in 1971 War was truly great and outstanding from any measures. Brief account of war performance is as under:- 

  • In East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh), Artillery units had to operate in the adverse conditions of hostile activities and unfavorable terrain. Move of guns in various sectors was itself not a small task. However, the gunners, true to their traditions and training, provided extremely effective fire support to the supported arm, at the same time defending their guns. All this was accomplished under the condition of complete enemy air superiority. On performance of gunners in East Pakistan, Lieutenant General Lachman Singh Lal, General Officer Commanding 20 (Indian) Mountain Division, a gunner himself paid tribute to Pakistan Artillery:-

    “Performance of Pakistan Artillery in Bangladesh operations was extremely well and commendable”


     
  • In West Pakistan the performance of Artillery and effectiveness of fire support was equally outstanding. Employment of guns and concentration of firepower played havoc with enemy forces. In some sectors the battles fought were very intense and fierce but Artillery invariably remained a deciding factor. Whenever the call for fire was made, it was promptly and instantaneously answered. The following extract from Military Analysis of 1971 war by Lieutenant General Azmat Bakhsh Awan is a gist and true reflection of gunners performance in 1971 war.

    “Artillery was employed in a bold manner and very effectively, particularly in support of Chhamb and Ponch operations. Artillery has faithfully responded to the call of duty whenever required”.
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 History of School of Artillery

Artillery School was raised at Kakul (Abbottabad) in 1921 and it shifted to Deolali (India) in 1940. In 1947 with partition of Sub-Continent, following events took place:-

  • School resources were divided between Pakistan and India.
  • First Artillery of Royal Pakistan Artillary (RPA) School reached Nowshera on   15 November.
  • Lieutenant Colonel LS Gallagher took over as first Commandant.
  • 5th Battery was allotted to School as administration battery.
  • Three courses started on 1st December.

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah visited the School on 13 April 1948 and General Muhammad Ayub Khan, Commander-In-Chief, visited in May 1951. The Instructional Wing was raised in June 1949, whereas Establishment Wing started functioning on 1st September, 1952. On 21st March 1953, designation of “RPA School” was changed to “School of Artillery”. An Observation Wing was also formed on 15 May 1954. In 1955, School was re-organised into Tactical Wing, Employment Wing and 47 Field Battery.In 1956 following changes took place:-

  • On 23rd  March all references to Royalty and Crown were dropped and RPA was named as Pakistan Artillery.
     
  • Observation Wing was disbanded in November.
     
  • On 13 December, School was re- organised into Instructional Wing and Administration Wing and one Field Regiment was placed under command for administration and training.
     
  •   Lieutenant Colonel Amir Ahmed took over as First Pakistani Commandant on 11 November 1958. Research and Development Wing was raised in May same year. General Tikka Khan inaugurated Officers Mess in 1968. In May 1985, a Model Room named “Akhtar Hall” was inaugurated by Brigadier Muhammad Akhtar Khan. Between February-March 1990 following occurred:-

    • New Officers Mess was furnished and commissioned.
    • Old Officers Mess was converted in Headquarters School of Artillery.
    • School cafeteria (capacity 200 seats) was established.
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Role of Artillery

Its main function in battle is the establishment of such fire supremacy in the battle area that the enemy can neither interfere with our operations nor can he develop his own effectively. Artillery fulfils this function by destroying or neutralizing enemy ground or air weapons, by causing casualties to his troops, and ultimately, by breaking his will to fight. Artillery has, therefore, the following Tactical functions:-

  • To provide fire support for commander’s operational plan.
  • To locate enemy weapons and other targets.
  • Implement interdiction plan.
  • Advise army field commanders on artillery matters.

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